I have a more fundamental question which I have problems finding an answer to online. In DualSPHysics, how are the particles treated? As point particles or as finite volume particles, or differently? If possible could someone link/suggest a paper in which this is stated/explained.

Regards,

Bladomas

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## Comments

Gómez-Gesteira M, Rogers BD, Crespo AJC, Dalrymple RA, Narayanaswamy M and Domínguez JM. 2012. SPHysics - development of a free-surface fluid solver- Part 1: Theory and Formulations. Computers & Geosciences, 48: 289-299. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2012.02.029.

Gómez-Gesteira, M, Rogers BD, Dalrymple RA, Crespo AJC. 2010. State-of-the-art of classical SPH for free-surface flows. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48: 6-27. doi:10.3826/jhr.2010.0012.

The most common approach for SPH is using the Lagrangian perspective in which a particle is denoted as a material point moving in space, ie. a point which holds the attributes which we are interested in; mass (density,volume), velocity, acceleration etc. This is also the general approach in DualSPHysics.

This is not the only way to do SPH, since Eulerian SPH solvers also exist, in which to my understanding the principles of control volumes in FVM are utilized but combined with particles moving in and out of them.

Also be aware of the two general approaches in SPH (other than Lagrangian and Eulerian), which is the "gather" (left) and "scatter" (right) approaches in SPH. DualSPHysics uses gather.

Read more about the final point here, where you will download a pdf from research gate

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226325339_Exploiting_numerical_behaviors_in_SPH/download

Kind regards